Sakay Chuem (Breadfruit in Syrup)

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Sakay Chuem (Breadfruit in Syrup)

Castor sugar is a main ingredient of Sakay Chuem. The methods of making Sakay Chuem are alike other boiling in syrub desserts. Choose glutinous breadfruits and soak in saturated red lime water for sticky and served to monks for ment and also served in daily meals.

1 glutinous breadfruit
8 measuring cups castor sugar
4 measuring cups fresh water

1. Split breadfruit and slice into 1/2 - 3/4 inch wide. Pit.
2. Wash with boiling water mixed with alum. Remove to soak in cold water.
3. Divide sugar into 2 parts. Mix one with water. Bring to boil over medium heat and stir until sugar dissolves.
4. Add breadfruit and simmer over medium heat for 20 minutes. Add the rest of sugar. Simmer until syrup resembles thin cream.

Thong Yod (Gold Egg Yolks Drops)

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Thong Yod (Gold Egg Yolks Drops)

Thong Yod (Gold Egg Yolks Drops) is an ancient Thai dessert served in suspicious ceremonies. It was brought by Lady Witchayen. It is in popular family of desserts consisting of Thong (meaning Gold) in all of the names. Thong-yib, Thong-yod, Foy-thong, all mean to wish everyone with gold; much money and treasure, and to spend forever.

15 egg yolks
10 tbsp. Thong Yod flour (wheat and rice flour mixture)

Ingredients of Syrup
10 measuring cups castor sugar
6 measuring cups fresh water
Ingredients of Light Syrup
1 measuring cups castor sugar
1 measuring cups fresh water

1. Separate the yolks from white eggs. Strain though muslin. Squeeze.
2. Blend until thick and fluffy for 15 minutes.
3. Ladle the mixture in the cup. Add 4 tbsp. of flour. Mix well.
4. Drop the mixture in boiling syrup. Increase heat.

How to drop the mixture
The drop shape is formed by dropping the thick mixture from the tip of a finger into hot bubbling heavy syrup. The drops are then removed into still, cooled lighter syr up after cooking.

Good characteristics
1. Glossy and delicacy surface.
2. Both outer and inner of Thong Yod should be soft.
3. Not stench.

Foy Thong (Gold Egg Yolks Thread)

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Foy Thong (Gold Egg Yolks Thread)

Foy Thong (Gold Egg Yolks Thread) is an ancient Thai dessert, which is served in auspicious ceremonies and was brought by Lady Witchayen in the period of King Narai. It is in popular group of desserts consisting of "Thong" (meaning "Gold"). Its name means treasure and its long thread means long life. Foreigners name it "golden hair". Therefore, when used in ceremonies, Foy Thong is not cut.


30 duck egg yolks
5 tsp. egg dew

Ingredients of making Syrup
10 measuring cups castor sugar
6 measuring cups fresh water

Methods of making Syrup
1. Mix sugar and eggshell. Add water and pandanus leaves. Stir over medium heat.
2. When boiling, spoon the bubble away. Strain through muslin. Boil over low heat.

Methods of mixing Eggs.
1. Beat the egg. Separate the yolks and put in muslin. The light egg white (egg dew) remains in the eggshells.
2. Strain the yolks through muslin. Mix slightly with the egg dew.

Methods of making Skein
1. Flow the mixture through a small hole of a cone above a vessel of bubbling heavy syrup. When cooked add little boiled water.
2. Lower heat. Skein is waved gently with a stick through the syrup to give it a glossy, silky look. Repeat the process.

Thong Yib (Pinched Gold Egg Yolks)

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Thong Yib (Pinched Gold Egg Yolks)

Thong Yib is an ancient Thai dessert served in auspicious ceremonies. It is in popular family of desserts consisting of "Thong" (meaning "Gold") in all of the manes. Thong-yib, Thong-yod, Foy-thong, all mean to wish everyone with gold; much money and treasure, and to spend forever.

20 duck egg yolks
10 measuring cups castor sugar
6 measuring cups fresh water
10 pandanus leaves

Methods of Thick Syrup
1. Mix sugar and eggshell. Add water and pandanus leaves. Bring to stir over medium heat.
2. When boiling, spoon the bubble. Strain through muslin. Then reduce to lower heat.

Methods of Light Syrup
Follow the methods for thick syrup but the ingredient of sugar and water will be 1:1

Preparation of Eggs
1. Separate the yolks and squeeze through muslin.
2. Beat with blender for 5 minutes until the yolks become bubble and thick. When drop, the yolks are unflatted.
3. Simmer syrup over lower heat until it is still.
4. Make the yolks into dollop of batters of 1 1/2 inch diameter and drop into the pan.
5. Increase heat. Cook the batter both sides. Add little water until the batter is done.
6. Lower the heat. Ladle and soak in light syrup.
7. Pinch the batter to have 5, 6, and 8 as you want and place in a small round ceramic cup.

Good characteristics
1. Good smell, not stench.
2. The batter should be fluffy, soft, and sticky.

Med Khanoon (Jackfruit's seed in syrup)

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Med Khanoon (Jackfruit's seed in syrup)

Med Khanoon (Jackfruit's seed in syrup) is an ancient and well-known Thai dessert which is served to monks in ritual ceremonies or general ceremonies. In those days, jackfruit's seed was used as the main ingredient when making Med Khanoon. It was cooked and grounded. Stir and form to resemble jackfruit's seed. Therefore, it was called Med Khanoon. In these days, taro, breadfruit, and mungbean are used instead.

Ingredients for Sweetened Mungbean Paste
1 kg. steamed shelled mungbean
1 kg. grated coconut meat (squeeze with 2 measuring cups of water)
850 g. castor sugar 10 pandanus leaves

1. Soak shelled mungbean in water for 3 hours.
2. Steam for 50 minutes.
3. Mix cooked mungbean with coconut milk. Pound well.
4. Stir over medium heat in the brass pan for 10 minutes. Add sugar and continuously stir until mungbean is peeled off for 50 minutes. Leave to cool.
5. Form the mixture to resemble jackfruit's seed. Leave to dry.

Ingredients of Syrup/Eggs
2 kg. castor sugar
6 measuring cups fresh water
10 pandanus leaves
20 duck eggs

1. Mix sugar and eggshell. Add water and pandanus leaves. Bring to stir over medium heat.
2. When boiling, spoon the bubble away. Continuously stir until syrup is clear.
3. Strain through muslin. Boil over low heat.

Methods of making Egg Dip
1. Separate the yolks from the white eggs. Put the yolks in muslin.
2. Squeeze the yolks through muslin.

1. Lower the heat. Leave the syrup at the middle of the pan boil.
2. Dip jackfruit's seed in the yolks and drop into syrup. Increase the heat and add little boiled water.
3. Lower the heat and ladle.

Mor Kaeng Khai (Egg Custard)

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Mor Kaeng Khai (Egg Custard)

Khanom Mor Kaeng Khai is the most ancient Thai dessert originated since Si Ayutthaya period. It was first found in the ancient foreign dispatch that Chow Phaya Vichayen's wife taught Thais to make Khanom Mor Kaeng. It was baked in a curry pot (Mor Kaeng) in that time. Later trays are used instead. Khanom Mor Kaeng is a royal dessert.

35 duck eggs
1.3 kg. palm sugar
0.2 kg. sugar
2 kg. grated coconut meat (to make 11 cups coconut milk).

1. Heat the oven.
2. Wash the eggs and let dry.
3. Mix eggs, sugar, and coconut milk together in even quantity. (They can be hand mixed with pandanus leaves, or a blender.)
4. Put the mixture into the tray. Spread some coconut cream to cover the top of the mixture.
5. Bake in a moderately hot oven. When risen, lower the lower heat. Bake for another 30 minutes till the top is golden brown.

Khanom Chun (Layered Dessert)

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Khanom Chun (Layered Dessert)

Khanom Chun is an ancient Thai dessert. It is sticky but gives soft flavor. In those days, khanom Chun was served in auspicious ceremony such as celebrating for higher rank or one's promotion. It was made in 9 layers, which meant the progression in ones' jobs. Khanom Chun was also served in the wedding ceremony by its meaningful name.


5 1/2 g. topioca flour
1 1/2 g. flour
1 1/2 kg. grated fresh coconut meat (to make 9 cups coconut milk)
1 kg. + 1g. castor sugar
20 pandanus leaves

1. Squeeze pandanus leaves water by the blender and strain through muslin.
2. Mix well coconut milk, sugar, and pandanus leaf water. Heat to boiling. Set aside.
3. Grease the mold with a little drop of coconut milk.
4. Mix the two flours add the coconut milk and knead the mixture. Add all the rest of the ingredients.
5. Separate the mixture into two portions, add the pandanus scented water and green colour into one portion, leave the other white.
6. Grease the mold with the coconut milk, then heat the mold in the steamer. Drop some of the white mixture and steam for 5 - 10 minutes.
7. Repeat the steps to fill the mold. Finish with the green mixture.
8. Leave the cooked dessert to completely cool for 3 - 4 hours before removing from the mold.

Makes: 1 tray (12 x 12 inches)

Sod sai (Filled Coconut Cream)

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Sod sai (Filled Coconut Cream)

Sod Sai is an ancient Thai dessert which is available in all areas because tasty and easily prepared. It is made from flour, coconut milk, and sugar. The dessert consists of three parts: filling, filling cover, and topping.

Ingredients of filling
1 kg. palm sugar
1.2 kg. grated coconut meat
1/2 cup water
3 measuring cups maltose syrup

Mix palm sugar with grated coconut meat. Put the mixture into the pan. Stir over medium heat till thick, and then add maltose syrup. Stir. Leave to cool. Form the mixture into 1/2 cm balls.Put into the tightly closed container filled with candle smoke.

Ingredients of filling covers
2 cups black sticky rice flour
2 cups white sticky rice flour
1/2 cup water

1. Mix the two flours together. Gradually add in water and knead well.
2. Form the mixture into 1-cm balls. Spread the balls to cover the prepared fillings.

Ingredients of topping
2 cups and 6 tbsp. rice flour
8 tbsp. tubular flour
3 tbsp. and 1 tbp. salt
4 tbsp. sugar
8 cups thick coconut cream
4 cups thin coconut milk

1. Mix the two flours together. Add sugar, salt, and coconut cream. Stir well.
2. Heat the pan. Put the mixture. Stir till thick. Remove from heat.
3. Put the filling in the middle of prepared banana. Drop the topping onto the filling till the topping covers the filling. Fold banana leaf into high triangular shape.
4. Put the dessert into the steamer. Steam for 10 minutes.

- Outer banana leaves should be 2 1/2 inches wide, 7 1/2 inches long. Cut both ends into oval shape.
- Inner banana leaves should be 2 inches ride, 5 1/2 inches long. Cut both ends into oval shape.
- Use 1/2 inch wide, 12 inches long coconut leaf to secure the pack of the dessert.

Makes:240 packs

Khao Niew Tud (Sticky Glutinous Rice)

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Khao Niew Tud (Sticky Glutinous Rice)

Khao Niew Tud or Khao Niew Naa Nuan is made from glutinous rice, coconut milk, and sugar. It is served after the main course or after supper.

1 kg. long grain glutinous rice
1 1/2 kg. coconut cream
2 cups thin coconut milk
6 tbsp. sugar
2 tbsp. salt
2 g. rice flour

1. Soak the glutinous rice for at least 3 hours.
2. Mix thin coconut milk with 1 tsp. of salt.
3. Wash the rice. Place the rice on a steaming tray. Add the mixture of thin coconut over glutinous rice. Steam until done for 20-25 minutes.
4. Mix well 5 cups of coconut milk, salt, and sugar. Pour over steamed glutinous rice.
5. Continuously steam for 10 minutes. Bring to heat.
6. Garnish with Thong Yod or steamed black beans. Continuously steam for 20 minutes. Lower to medium heat.

Tua Pap (Filled Wheat Flour Dumpling)

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Tua Pap (Filled Wheat Flour Dumpling)

Khanom Tua Pap is an ancient Thai dessert, easy to make but very delicious and also nutritious. The ingredients which are easily found in one's own home include rice, sugar, and coconut or coconut milk.


1/2 kg. glutinous rice flour
1 3/4 cup water

Ingredients of Bean filling
800 g. steamed mung bean
2 tsp. salt

Shrimp filling
2 tbsp. vegetable oil
1 tbsp. coriander's root
1 tsp. ground garlic
1 tsp. pepper
1 cup chopped shrimp
1 1/2 cups fine shredded coconut meat
1/2 cup sugar
1/2 cup salt
1 cup water mixed with 2 drops of orange food colorings

Ingredients of Topping.
4 80 g. 3 - 4 cups fine shredded coconut meat
5 g. 1 1/2 tsp. salt
300 g. 1 1/2 cups sugar
150 g. 3/4 cup roasted sesame seeds

Preparation of bean filling
Mix well the steam mung bean with salt

Preparation of shrimp filling
1. Chop shrimp and coconut meat together, add colour
2. Heat the pan. Add some vegetable oil, coriander's root, and the shrimp mixture. Fry till well done. Season with salt, and sugar. Set aside.

1. Put the glutinous rice flour in a bowl, add water, knead until the flour is smooth (about 10 - 15 minutes)
2. Make 1-inch balls of the flour. Flatten each ball, drop into boiling water and leave till cooked. Remove from heat and put it into the fine shredded coconut meat.
3. Fill the flour in Step 2 with prepared fillings. Fold in the middle. Press the rim of the flour to cover the filling. Arrange the finished Tua Pap and serve with sugar and sesame seeds.

1. If more fragrant or colored Tua Pap is needed, pandanus leaf or food coloring should be added in mixing water.
2. For best result, mung beans should be cooked till soft before use.

Makes: 50 pieces for 17 - 20 persons

Leb Meu Nang (Sticky Rice Flour Stick with Coconut Meat)

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Leb Meu Nang (Sticky Rice Flour Stick with Coconut Meat)

Leb Meu Nang is served in wedding ceremony or in teaching Buddhism in the temple. With its good smell, soft, sticky, sweet, and its shape; which is long and thin like ladies fingers, it is called "Khanom Leb Meu Nang"

150 g. rice flour
50 g. cassava flour
500 g. jasmine scented water
100 g. cassava flour (used for preventing finger jam to the flour.)
750 g. thick coconut cream
50 g. cooked sesame seeds
480 g. grated coconut meat
7 g. salt
1 1/2 cups sugar
20 g. rice flour

1. Mix rice flour with cassava flour. Knead the two flours by adding jasmine scented water gradually till soft. Pour the rest of the water into the flour.
2. Stir the mixture over high heat till thick. Then lower the heat and continue stirring till the mixture does not get stick to the pan. Leave to cool.
3. Knead the flour again. If the flour is too sticky, touch cassava flour while kneading. Form the mixture gradually into a long and thin shape with pointed ends.
4. Boil water. Put the prepared mixture in Step3 into boiling water till it floats. Remove the cooked dessert and put it into grated coconut meat mixed with salt.
5. Boil coconut cream, add salt. Dissolve 2 g. of rice flour with water and add it into the coconut cream. Remove from heat after the mixture boils.
6. Stir fry sesame seeds (without oil). Mix sugar.Desired characteristics of the dessert:Soft ad sticky, and scented : sweet and creamy

Use medium heat while shining first, then lower the heat. If use too low heat, the mixture will get stick to the pan and is not soft.

Makes: 10 - 15 persons (60 g. for each)

Khao Niew Moon (Glutinous Rice with Toppings)

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Khao Niew Moon (Glutinous Rice with Toppings)

Khao Niew Moon is an ancient Thai dessert made from glutinous rice, coconut milk, sugar, and salt to make sweet, salty, and creamy taste. This kind of glutinous rice is served with various toppings such as Sungkaya topping, dried fish topping, shrimp topping, etc. It is served in all occasions.

1 kg. (5 1/2 cups) long grain sticky rice
1 piece alum
440-500 g. (1 3/4-2 cups) thick coconut milk
300 g. (1 1/2 cups) sugar
30 g. (3 tbsp.) salt

1. Soak the sticky rice at least 3 hours.
2. Wash the rice 3 times. Drain.
3. Place the rice in a steamer tray lined with muslin. Steam until done for 20-25 minutes
.4. Mix salt, coconut milk, and sugar will. Bring to boil and strain through muslin.
5. When the rice done, mix the prepared coconut milk with the rice. Scramble the mixture.Serve with toppings such as Sungkaya or other ripe fruits such as mangoes or durians.

Preparation of Thick coconut milk
2 cups (500 g. coconut meat) coconut milk
30 g. (2 tbsp.) rice flour
5 g. (1 1/2 tsp.) salt
30 g. (2 tbsp.) sugar

Mix well the mixture. Bring to boil and stir over the heat.

Preparation of Sungkaya Topping
190 g. (3/4 cups) thick coconut milk
200 g. (1 cup) palm sugar
6-7 (1 1/2 cups) eggs
3 pandanus leaves (cut into pieces)

Mix well sugar, coconut milk and eggs. Hand mix all the mixture together with pandanus leaves.Strain the mixture with muslin. Steam over boiling water for 20 minutes.

Makes:10 persons.

Preparation of Shrimp Topping
1/2 cup finely chopped fresh shrimp
1 cup (120 g.) finely chopped coconut meat
2 tsp. coriander’s root pounded with ground pepper
1/4 cup Cooking oil
2-3 tsp. salt
2-3 tbsp. sugar
1 tbsp. finely chopped kaffir lime leaves
1/2 tbsp. food coloring (red/orange)

1. Chop shrimp and grated coconut meat and mix well with food coloring.
2. Heat the pan. Add coriander’s root, shrimp, and grated coconut meat. Mix all together.Seasoning with salt and sugar. Garnish with Kaffir lime leaves.

Makes:10 persons.

Preparation of Dried Fish Topping
1 cup dried fish
2 tbsp. cooking oil
1/2 cup sugar
1/4 cup fried shallots

Stir fry the dried fish until crisp over the lower heat. Add sugar and fried shallots.

Khao Tom Pad or Khao Tom Mad (Filled Glutinous Rice)

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Khao Tom Pad or Khao Tom Mad (Filled Glutinous Rice)

Khao Tom Pad or Khao Tom Mad is a native Thai dessert made for giving to monks in Tuk Bath Tae Wo, and Aok Pan Sa festivals, and also giving among relatives during the festivals. It is always served before dinner time or to be a food provision during a long journey.

2 kg. long grains glutinous rice
5 cups thick coconut cream (made of 2 kg. grated coconut meat)
1 1/2 cups thin coconut cream
40 - 50 g. salt
800 g. sugar
1/2 kg. cooked black eye peas
2 hands ripe banana

1. Wash the rice 1 time. Soak in deep water for hours. Strain.
2. Mix thick coconut, salt, and sugar together. Stir till the sugar dissolves. Add the mixture into the rice in Step 1. Soak for a while.
3. Put the mixture from Stop 2 into the pan. Stir till the mixture dries. Set aside.
4. Tear young banana leaves. Wipe with wet clothes. (the outer leaves are 7 inches wide, 8 inches long, the inner leaves are 5 1/2 inches wide, and 6 1/2 inches long). Cut both ends of the leaves into oval shape. Put the inner leave on the outer leaves.
5. Spread the rice on the banana leaves. Put some cooked black eye peas. Put ripe banana in the middle of the rice sheet. Cover the banana with some rice. Fold the banana leaves. Tie the two packs of the dessert together tightly.
6. Steam the dessert for 2 hours.

Makes: 60 packs

Pui Fai (Thai Cake)

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Pui Fai (Thai Cake)

Khanom Pui Fai is a sweet and colorful Thai dessert usually served on a special occasion such as a party to celebrate one's promotion.


500 g. wheat flour
2 cups sugar
2 duck eggs
2 tbsp. S.P. (leavening agent)
3/4 cup condensed milk
1 cup water (1)
1 cup water (2)

1. Beat the eggs well at a high speed. Add S.P. (leavening agent) and continue beating for about 5 minutes.
2. Gradually and alternately add sugar and water (1)
3. Add milk and beat the mixture for 2 minutes.
4. Fold in wheat flour alternately with water (2), using a low speed beater.
5. Pour three -quarter of water into the steamer and heat to boil.
6. Spoon the mixture into the paper cake cups held in the aluminum molds. Arrange the mold in the steamer tray. Steam on medium heat for about 12 minutes.
7. Remove the cooked Pui Fai from the aluminum molds. Leave to cool.

Makes: 250 small paper cups.

Sungkaya (Thai Custard)

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Sungkaya (Thai Custard)

Sungkaya is an ancient Thai dessert made from eggs, sugar, and coconut cream. It is served in various occasions nowadays and is adapted into various kinds such as Sungkaya with young coconut meat topping, with pumpkin topping, taro topping, or Foi Thong topping. In addition, it is also served with Khao Niew Moon (glutinous rice)

35 duck eggs
1 kg. + 2 g. palm sugar
2 g. sugar
2 kg. grated coconut meat (to make 10 coconut cream)
20 pandanus leaves (cut into pieces)
2 tbsp. cassava flour

1. Wash the eggs, dry, and set aside.
2. Hand mix the eggs and sugar together by using pandanus leaves.
3. Add thick coconut cream. Mix it to the mixture in Step 2. Then, strain through muslin.
4. Put the tray in the steamer. Steam the tray till it completely dries.
5. Put the mixture into the tray. Sprinkle with pumpkin or young coconut meat.
6. Steam over high heat for 1/2 hour. When the dessert raises, lower the heatto be medium. Steam for another 1/2 hour.

Remarks:To make pumpkin Sungkaya, cut pumpkin into small 1-inch pieces. Sprinkle on the top of Sungkaya.

Makes:1 tray (12 x 12 inches)

A - Lua (Crispy Sticky Dumpling)

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A - Lua (Crispy Sticky Dumpling)

A-Lua is made from wheat flour, coconut cream, and sugar. This dessert is crispy outside but soft inside, sweet, creamy, and scented. It can be colored by natural colors and food coloring.

2 cups wheat flour
1 1/4 cups sugar
2 cups coconut cream
2 tbsp. pandanus leaves water

1. Sieve flour and add sugar. Add coconut cream gradually. Knead till the sugar dissolves, then put all the rest of the coconut cream. Stir well and sieve the mixture. Put the mixture into pan. Stir quickly over medium heat till the mixture is clear. Add pandanus leaf. Stir till the mixture is thick and clear. Leave to cool.
2. Grease the tray. Use 2 teaspoons to scoop the mixture and drop on the tray to be 1 1/2 inches far from each others. Sun dry the dropped mixture or bake by using hot air.

- Use high heat for about 2 - 3 minutes till the mixture is clear, then lower the heat and continues to stir for another 2 - 3 minutes till the mixture is cried.

Makes: 5 - 8 persons

Ray Rai (Rice Thread with Coconut Meat)

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Ray Rai (Rice Thread with Coconut Meat)

Khanom Ray Rai is a beautiful Thai dessert. It is always mentioned about its eye catchy aspect both in normal conversation and in writing.

300 g. dried rice flour
30 g. tubular flour
50 g. singapore flour
375 g. coconut cream
500 g. fresh flower scented water
200 g. sugar
375 g. thick coconut cream (to make topping)
240 g. steamed grated coconut meat
3 g. salt
135 g. black white cooked sesame seeds
3 – 4 g. banana leaves

1. Mix rice flour, tubular flour, and coconut cream together. Knead the mixture for 10 minutes. Then add the rest of coconut cream and jasmine scented water. Put the mixture into the pan. Stir till the mixture dries and no longer stick to pan. Leave to warm.
2. Knead the mixture till soft. Roll the mixture to be 10 inches long, and 1 inch wide. Cut the rolled mixture into 1 inch pieces.
3. Sprinkle cassava flour onto the mold. Put and press the prepared mixture in Step 2 in the mold. The pressed flour will be round, line like a piece of hay in bird’s nest.
4. Put banana leaves onto the steamer. Grease the leaves with coconut cream. Put the prepared mixture in Step.3 into the steamer. Steam for 4 – 5 minutes. Remove from heat.Leave to cool.
5. Serve with cooked grated coconut meat mixed with coconut cream and salt.

1. The most important step of making Khanom Ray Rai is preparing the flour.
- Knead the flour with the palm till soft.
- Stir the flour in one direction only.
- Use cassava flour as needed. If uses it too much, the flour will be too wet when steam.
2. After the water boils, steam the dessert for another 3 – 4 minutes only. If longer, the dessert will be too wet, and flat.
3. To serve:
- Sprinkle grated coconut meat on the dish first.
- Place the dessert on the coconut.
- Separate coconut cream, sesame seeds, and sugar. When it is ready to eat, sprinkle sugar, sesame seeds, and coconut cream on the dessert consequently.
- The dessert should be shiny, sticky, and soft.

Makes:15 persons (60 g. each)

Ta - Ko (Rice Flour Custard with Coconut Cream)

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Ta - Ko (Rice Flour Custard with Coconut Cream)

Ta-ko is made from flour, coconut cream, and sugar. There are two parts of Ta - ko; the main part consists of flour and sugar, and the topping contains coconut cream, flour, and salt. To make variation, other ingredients can be added to have more various tastes such as corn, nut grass, and taro and they are called by their names e.g. Taro Ta-Ko, Nut Ta-Ko, etc.

Ingredients of the main part
1 1/2 cups mung bean flour
1/4 cup cassava flour
7 1/2 cups pandanus leaves water
4 1/2 cups sugar
2 cups cooked nut grass (dice)

1. Mix mung bean flour and cassava flour together.
2. Add pandanus leaves water into the flour gradually. Stir well.
3. Put the mixture in Step.2 into the pan. Stir well over high heat till the mixture becomes thick then add sugar. Lower the heat to medium, stir till the mixture is thick and clear. Add nut grass, stir for a while. Set aside.
4. Drop the mixture into the middle of pandanus leaves cups

Ingredients of topping
1 1/2 cups corn flour
4 tsp. salt
7 1/2 cups (3 1/2 cups coconut cream, 4 cups coconut milk) coconut milk

1. Mix corn flour, salt, and coconut milk together. Stir well.
2. Bring the mixture in Step 1 to stir over medium heat till the mixture is thick. Remove. Drop over the main part in pandanus leaves.

Methods of making pandanus leaves cups
1. Pandanus leaves
2. Green thread
3. Needle No.94. Scissors

1. Cut both ends of pandanus leaves. Divide the leaves into 5-inches squar es. Cut along the line.
2. Fold the right square.
3. Continue folding the rest.
4. Fold the last part into the cup. Sew the top and the lower ends.

Makes:180 pieces

Leum Kleun (Stir Fried Mung Bean Flour)

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Leum Kleun (Stir Fried Mung Bean Flour)

Khanom Leum Kleun is made from mung bean flour, coconut cream, and sugar. There are 2 parts of the dessert: body and topping. After putting the dessert into the cups, sprinkle with fried and crispy green peas. The dessert is soft, smooth, and very easy to swallow.

Ingredients of the topping
3/4 cup rice flour
2 1/2 tsp. salt
2 cups thick coconut cream
1 cup thin coconut cream
some fried green peas

1. Mix well flour, water, food coloring.
2. Heat the pan. Pour the mixture in Step. 1 into the pan. Stir over high heat till the mixture is thick and clear. Add sugar. Stir till the mixture is thick and clear. Remove from heat.
3. Drop the mixture into plastic cups at the level 3/4 of the cup.
4. Mix rice flour, salt and coconut cream together. Pour the mixture into the pan.
5. Heat the pan. Stir the mixture till thick. Drop the mixture onto the body in Step 3.
6. Sprinkle with fried green peas.

1. The body of the dessert is dried easily. So drop it into the cups as quickly as possible otherwise the dessert is not smooth.
2. The topping should be added onto the body while it is still warm, or the two parts are apart from each other.Desired characteristics of the dessert:The body should be clear with light colour. The topping should be smooth

Makes:200 cups

Khao niew Daeng (Ged Glutinous Rice)

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Khao niew Daeng (Ged Glutinous Rice)

Khao Niew Daeng is in a same type of Thai desserts as Khao Niew Kaew and Kalamae, which need to be stirred to form the desired characteristics of the dessert. The main ingredients are glutinous rice, palm sugar, and sesame seeds. It is served in Song Kran festival to monks and relatives.

1,500 g. glutinous rice
1,125 g. palm sugar
8 cups grated coconut meat
375 g. maltose syrup
10 pandanus leaves
1 tbsp. salt

1. Wash the rice slightly 3 times. Add salt into rice water while washing. Soak for 3 hours.
2. Stir fry (without Oil) sesame seeds over medium heat.
3. Steam the rice in Step 1 for 5 minutes.
4. Mix palm sugar, coconut cream, maltose syrup and pandanus leaves together.
5. Stir the mixture in Step 4 Over medium heat till thick.
6. Mix well the cooked rice into the mixture in Step 5. Use medium heat. Remove from heat, press the dessert into the tray. Leave to cool. Sprinkle with cooked sesame seeds.Cut into pieces.

Makes:1 tray ( 12 x 12 inches)

Khao Niew Kaew (Glossy Glutinous Rice)

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Khao Niew Kaew (Glossy Glutinous Rice)

Khao Niew Kaew is made from glutinous rice. coconut cream, and sugar. It can be scented by adding pandanus leaves. Khao Niew Kaew is served to the monks in various festivals such as kao Pan Sa and AoK Pan Sa. Khao Niew Kaew was one of the ten desserts served in the celebration of Phra Si Rattanasartsadaram Temple in 1809 during King Rama I period.

1,500 g. glutinous rice
1,000 g. sugar
8 cups grated coconut meat
10 pandanus leaves
2 – 3 tbsp. concentrated pandanus leaves water
1 tbsp. salt (to mix in the water while washing rice)

1. Wash the rice slightly 3 times. Mix salt in the water while washing. Then soak for 3 hours.
2. Steam the rice for 50 minutes.
3. Mix sugar, coconut cream, and pandanus leaves together. Boil until the mixture is thick.
4. Add the rice into the mixture in Step 3. Stir and add pandanus leaves water to make colour. When the mixture is well done (sticky and clear), put and press the cooked mixture into the tray. Leave to cool. Caut into pieces.

Use medium heat first. When the mixture is thicker, lower the heat.

1 tray (12 x 12 inches)

Piak Poon (Rice Flour Custard)

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Piak Poon (Rice Flour Custard)

Stirring flour, sugar, and saturated red lime juice are needed in making Khanom Piak Poon. The dessert needs to be stirred over high heat and then medium heat till it turns sticky and thick. It is usually added green color from pandanus leaves and black from burnt coconut skin. It is always served after dinner.

4 g. rice flour
1 1/2 g. tubular flour
2 g. palm sugar
1 kg. sugar
16 cups Saturated red lime liquid
2 tbsp. concentrated pandanus leaves water

1. Prepare saturated red lime liquid - Use 3 kg. of red lime.- Soak red lime in 20 litres water for 1 week.
2. Mix rice flour, tubular flour, and saturated red lime liquid together.
3. Pour the mixture into the pan. Add palm sugar and sugar. Stir till thick. Then add pandanus leaves water. Stir for another 1 hour. Lower the heat. Pat the dessert in the tray.

1 of 12 x 12 inches tray or
2 of 5 1/2 x 5 1/2 inches tray

Sanae Chun (Flour Paste)

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Sanae Chun (Flour Paste)

Khanom Sanae Chun is made of flour sugar, coconut cream and egg yolks stirred together till dry. Then, form the mixture to be "Look Chun" a kind of fruit. The finished dessert looks like natural Look Chun.

1/2 cup glutinous flour
1/2 cup rice flour
1/4 cup chun ted powder
2 cup thick coconut cream
1 cup sugar
3 egg yolks

1. Sift glutinous rice flour, rice flour, and Chun Ted powder together.
2. Mix coconut cream and sugar together. Heat the mixture till the sugar dissolves, strain with muslin. Add the mixed flour in Step 1. Stir well on low heat till thick. Let warm, mix egg yolks. Heat the pan and stir the mixture again till the mixture dried. Add a little bit of yellow color.
3. Form the mixture to be Look Chun. Garnish with brown colour.

70 Look Chuns

Thong Eak

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Thong Eak (Wheat Flour Dumpling with Egg Yolks)

Thong Eak is a Thai dessert, which is adapted from Western sweets. The ingredients are egg yolks, coconut cream, wheat flour, and sugar. Thong Eak is served in auspicious ceremony because of its meaningful name and colour.

1 cup Wheat flour
1 cup sugar
1 cup egg yolks
1 cup coconut cream

1. Mix well wheat flour, sugar, and egg yolks together. Add coconut cream and stir till the sugar dissolves, then sieve the mixture through muslin.
2. Pour the mixture into the pan. Stir the mixture over low heat till thick. Set aside and leave to cool.
3. Divide the mixture into small pieces, press the divided pieces into the molds. Then, knock off. Garnish with the gold leaf.
4. Arrange the cooked dessert into an aromaticed – containers.
- Thong Eak should be bright yellow and scented.

1. Use low heat.
2. Add some food colour; yellow and orange, into the mixture to make good colour of the dessert.

70 pieces.

Cha Mong Kood

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Cha Mong Kood(Egg Yolks Dumpling in Wheat Flour Crown)

Cha Mong Kood is a royal Thai dessert,served to the King. It is a rare Thai dessert because of its complicated methods of making.

(1) Watermelon seeds: thorn shaped
1 cup red skinless watermelon seed
1 cup sugar
1 cup jasmine scented water

1. Mix sugar and jasmine scented water together. Heat to boiling. Remove from heat.
2. Stir fry watermelon seeds over low heat. Put finger into prepared syrup, then nib watermelon seeds with the finger till the syrup dries. Wipe the pan with wet clothes. Rub till the seeds become thorn, which takes about 5 – 6 hours. Store the seeds in closed container.

2) flour cup
1 cup wheat flour
2 egg yolks1 egg

1. Mix flour with eggs. Knead till soft. Spread the flour into thin sheets, then cut the rim to make 2 inches diameter round sheet.
2. Put the flour into a small cup, press slightly to form the flour to be a cup. Remove from the cup with fork. Bake and set aside

Useful Tips: Sugar and Thai Dessert

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Useful Tips: Sugar and Thai Dessert

Sugar, this sweet is preserve for food:…….if mentioning about dessert whether Thai dessert or other nations, the first taste people in general thinks is about sweet taste. Especially Thai dessert having the slogan that it is sweet. Because of tasting about sweet taste in that Thai dessert ever since. If not to think to mention about the sweet, mostly or everybody think for the first time of course……everybody think "sugar."

All houses should of course have sugar, so far called as the basic ingredients for making raw food and sweet since the ancient times. Before Thai people have no granulated sugar just like these days, was use sugar from slice sweet from falling palm. This palm sugar is in various shape the name is derived from the container use such as if it is in the can it is called sugar in can, if it is in pot it is called sugar in pot, if only the top is in bulk something like elevated earth but biggest it is called ton sugar.

Later when sugar is in shape of scabs so far called as granulated sugar, then granulated sugar has been use as the major sugar at every houses. Granulated sugar is in two kinds, first one is red granulated sugar, because it is something like red, since it is not under the process of whitely purify. Most important it still have vitamin and mineral. For granulated sugar is already undergoes with purify so no vitamin and mineral left anymore, only pure carbohydrates. We called it white sugar. This granulated sugar is mostly use in preserving food. The process of food preservation using sugar, Thai people had widely used since then. The ancient ways of using is syrup and churn, the food to make, as syrup and churn that mostly like are varieties of fruits. The aim is to preserve the fruits not to be rotten to be eaten in the family or giving to relatives and neighbours to deliciously eaten. It should be considered that although at that time they did not learn the theory or technique in preserving food just like scientific way and modern technology. But the ancient people can preserve the food by easy method to keep the food stay longer.

Candied Sugar

Using sugar to preserve the food at present still widely applied. Especially for fruits and agricultural products to produce Thai dessert, sweet taste, and crispy and starchy. Using candied sugar or enamel use to preserve food to make the food stay longer and keep in long method is just to boiled the sugar to stick together then put the food to be preserve, with this method to have the candied food or good tasty food longer. The dessert undergoes with preservation in this of method are candied banana, candied cassava, candied taro, krongkring
(small sweetmeat made of pellets flour boiled in coco milk and shaped like cockle shells), khai hia (sweetmeat), bird nest etc.


Is the other method that makes the dessert tasty until forget about the valid date of the food. Churn is to reduce the volume of water in the food is the best method. The food use to churn mostly are ripe fruits remains from eating fresh such as mango, banana, star gooseberry etc. all are agriculture products like, potato, peanut, taro, sticky rice etc. The method is not difficult just to spend time a little bit. Firstly the fruits of agriculture product need to churn, need to scramble to make the fruits depart each other. Then put on the golden pot put the fire lightly, use paddle to churn or continuously stir, to make the water saturated outside and to avoid the food stick on the pot. Then add sugar at that time, if the churn food needed to have a good taste. It depend to the grinded coconut or coconut milk, add small amount of salt. Stir until it become sticky then gradually pull down, leave it to cool, then put on the container with seal, the food under the churn process of another one is to churn the flower and coconut blend together with sugar (for best result use sugar in can) it will have a sweet taste you cannot deny, of course you ever eat with many people this sweet is called caramel.

Preserve in Sugar

Is another way of food preservation in good taste and strange feeling. Preserve in sugar is to put the food on sugar. It will help the sugar out from the food and makes the microbe that makes the food rotten will not grow. At the same time sugar will absorb into the texture of the food. It add more sweet, the food preserve in sugar most people likes to eat especially for girls, no one can deny is fruits with sweet and sour such as mango, bale fruit, star gooseberry, tamarind etc. Preservation in sugar that makes the taste in sweet and sour because sweet will mix with the smell and sour, that sometimes you can forget sour taste. The fruit undergoes with preservation under this process apart it will have a delicious taste it also have a high price. To understand that preserve in sugar makes the food have high price is not a mistake. Because when it is fresh fruit the price is kilogram is just a few baht. But when it comes to preserve the price is merely high, just wait for a time and the fruit will have a sweet taste then sell to have a double price.

Pickled/or preserve in salt

Is the same method like preserve in sugar. It only differs because it needs only a little sugar but mostly it added a lot of salt. So far it is called salt is the main ingredient secondly is sugar. Food preservation in other way, which is not using the sour fruits, should add the microbe essence. But for sour fruits like mango, star gooseberry, bale fruit etc. it is not necessary because it is salty and sour existed on behalf of fruit preserve in salt such as pickled star gooseberry, pickled mango, pickled guava, jujube, olive, tamarind etc.

Apart from the above mentioned process of preservation. Sugar can do many things especially eaten with dessert made in syrup and coconut cream added with ice. Mostly when it is eaten during hot season it makes us comfortable you cannot deny. Sugar use for syrup is the former granulated sugar. Boiled water with granulated sugar in appropriate ratio. If boiling to have a sweet taste like syrup something like clear to be eaten with sweet or fruits in sweet preserve made of sour fruit steeped in syrup and little salt (loi kaew) such as kraton (fruit tree) palm loi kaew, bale fruit jelly, jelly, sweetmeat made of edible bird nest, balsam apple in syrup, mango in syrup etc. or to be eaten with herbal drinks for health such as bai buabok (creeping herb) juice, bale fruit juice, baitoey (woody plant) juice, lemon grass etc.

But if to stir the sugar until it merely concentrated is to use ripe Thai dessert such as for at least make it as Foi thong (sweetmeat made of egg yolk). Syrup enough to boiled sweetmeat is merely boiled syrup until it will have big bubbles on the center. When putting the paddle it will merely sticky. If the syrup has more bubbles and more concentrated it is good for Thong Yip and if the syrup is more concentrated when it is boiling the pot has full of bubbles good for thong yod (sweetmeat made of eggyolk and sugar). Apart from this, syrup is also good for fruits and other agricultural products such as potato, taro, nut grass, banana (some kinds), squash etc. The dessert boils with syrup to preserve for eaten several days. Therefore cooking Thai dessert using syrup is another way of food preservation.

For coconut cream mostly use is sugar in can because it is aromatic smells and sweet like Thai style. It is referred that sugar in can is go together with coconut cream well. It is more suited when it is mix with scented candle; the taste is very delicious and sweet. Coconut cream is eaten with boiled taro, muskmelon, lod chong (sweetmeat made of noodles and coconut cream), black sticky rice, sweet basil seed etc.

Useful Tips: Scented candle, Scented Thai dessert

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Useful Tips: Scented candle, Scented Thai dessert

…….Thai dessert is one that symbolizes Thai nation with people that preserve and inherits the culture-tradition in making not to be cut off although the numbers are not much or for dessert difficult to make need to use highly articulate which is difficult to find for a person to inherits this making of Thai desserts. In addition to its delicious taste and beautiful shape like Thai sweets make by skilled meticulously maker. It also has an aromatic smell that urge people to taste. Therefore it can be referred as charm of these Thai desserts is the fragrant smell.

One of aromatic smell as symbolizes because Thai dessert is scented candle. Most of new generation may never see how look like is the scented candle, later they will know after they eaten or some maybe don’t know that the smell they say is fragrant is the smell of scented candle. So they eat deliciously that sweet taste without knowing the origin of that dessert by using scented candle. Nobody has recorded during the ancient time in written of what period did the Thai dessert originated, only knows that it is a long time ago using the Thai scented dessert, is the major such as Luk Chob, when after churn peanut it will scented before made into shape.

Making baked toddy palm sugar like ancient time is when the drop of toddy palm is in shape of the pot. Place the sweet by dozen to baked with scented candle etc. apart from the ancient days using scented candle for baking to have an aromatic smell. It also use for scented flour of Dok Sarapee too use for bathing. The dessert under the process of scented candle are in different kinds such as Lum Panne, Thong Ek, Klip Lumduan, Pui Pai, Somnas, Khao Du etc. like coconut milk spread around, Lud Chong, musk melon etc. all were under the process of scented candle.

Making Wax Roll

The procedure in making wax so far called as wax roll. Wax roll is the important skill for ancient Thai women, of course the procedure are different according to it period. During the old days they use beehive churn with wooden paddle in silver pan then filter to take only the wax in yellow liquid. Then spread with benzoin on the wax. Stir to mix together then leave on the sun to make it dry, make into sheet, put on the center. Then dig the candle in shape of millipede. Presently making scented candle still using wax from the northern part of Thailand. When after filling the wax mix it with paraffin or little artificial wax to avoid not to much liquid. At present the shape of scented candle is not millipede, just to bend into curve facing each other. The aromatic substance use to stir together with that wax, apart from benzoin several of Thai scented substance are use such as red granulated sugar, grinded chalot peel, pimsen, peel of kaffir finely slice, sandal oil etc. Baking candle dessert is mild in a technique of meticulously done. This technique is widely inherited since the ancient times. Ancient people will place the scented candle on the dish clay or small earthen cup. However these days it is place on small aluminum basin or maybe small silver cup.

Saturated candle started by putting fire on the scented candle place between the desserts on the bottle. When fire reach to the wax then put off the fire lift only the smoke. Then immediately open the bottle cap, leave for one night to have an aromatic, smooth Thai dessert. The basic procedure of baking candle should do carefully to avoid it black around the candle or will pull down or pull on the dessert. Therefore it necessary to baked the candle for the next time, it should advisable to especially aware about this matter. Because the candle used for the first time will have a number of black ashes stick on it. Firstly take it out, it is better to do it to avoid sorry at the end. That the sweet scented dessert will totally dirty.

The different scent all are supplementary that make Thai dessert have a sweet smell. Some kinds of dessert may use other smell instead of scented candle having the same procedure. Baking sweet using flower and scented candle leave for one night, you will have a fragrant scented candle and fragrant flower at the same time.

Baking dessert by Rose

Rose use for baking should be the only kind of pink Mon rose. As can seen along the market selling plants. That at present pink Mon rose is merely seen and it have an expensive price. Therefore Thai dessert saturated with ranjuan of pink Mon rose is rare to find. Baking dessert with rose can do by picking up its leave of rose. Be careful in picking up to avoid the flower damages then spread into the dessert. Then close the seal and leave one night, of course you can assured than if rose flower use for baking is the real pink Mon rose flower.

Baking with Kradangga flower (vine plant with fragrant flower)

It needs to expose kradangga flower on the fire of scented candle. Allowing the petal of the flower will rotten first. Then press the flower to scattered together, the smell will come out strongly. After the basic step then prepare the kradangga flower then put on the dessert to bake. Tightly close the seal leave for a night, putting fire on the kradangga flower is the source of slogan "kradangga lon fai (kradangga fall on fire).

Useful Tips: Good Definition of Thai Dessert

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Useful Tips: Good Definition of Thai Dessert
Source: Office of the National Culture Commission

Thai dessert have sweet taste and aromatic smell from candle stick in beautiful shape cause by meticulously done, create that makes the food beautiful, nice to be eaten and good to be presented as gift from Thai dessert at different occasion. Most of the desserts are meaningful, that makes the giver and receiver have good deeds with good meaning as follows:

Promotion of Rank

Khanom Ja Mongkot to appreciate by giving this dessert with the word “ja” means chief and the word “ mongkot (crown) means the king or the highest people. Therefore Ja Mongkot means the highest chief the highest meaning plus making this kind of dessert is rather difficult using articulates technique, ja mongkot will be given only to the people of highly influential.
-Kanom-Chan …..means highly progress
-Khanom tuay fo ..means progress and development
-Khanom thong ek means one forever life
-Khanom tong plu ..means progress, well-known like thunder
-Khanom luk chup …means lovely, anyone will love, most good for mature to young people
-Khanom maprao kaew or glutinous glass means the precious glass
-Khanom sanechan means with charm like the full moon
-Khanom tan means to have a sweet and smooth life

Useful Tips: Thai Dessert for different occasion

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Useful Tips: Thai Dessert for different occasion
Source: Office of the National Culture Commission

.........…….Thai dessert has taking its part at different merit making since the past for Thai people making special desserts. Especially for merit making that means once in a year making that kind of dessert. Because making that dessert is too difficult and use encouragement from several people that joint together in making that dessert in a great volume. The rest of that dessert will be distributed to neighbors and keep themselves. These desserts can be called according to its occasion.

Caramel for Thai New Year... From the past Thais considered Songkran day was the New Year’s day before the government of Field Marshal Phibul Songkram declared 1st January is the New Year’s day under the international calender since B.E. 2484 (1941) until at present. Formerly the New Year celebrations declared on the same day and considered 13 April is the Thai New Year’s day falls between April 13 and 14 April is the day to be happy and 15 April is the beginning of New Era of little era following the solar eclipse. Making of Thai desserts at that time should be finished before the coming of New Year. Because the people had to do merit and these dessert will be offer to the monk and pagoda at the temple.

Songkran day or Thai New Year’s day was to bless water on the head that lasted to 7 days. Thai desserts was the native dessert made and can keep longer time like glutinious crystal or kaoniao kaew, kaoniao daeng and caramel. From the three desserts, grinding caramel was considered that Thais do it regularly every year and mostly do kaoniao kaew, kaoniao daeng but some have to alternate in making desserts. Because these two desserts were easily done, or else if any family wanted to make caramel otherwise they are a big family to grind the caramel, with numbers of relatives. Because making caramel needs a lot of people to stir. The atmosphere in making caramel were very enjoyable, everybody help each other to prepare about 2 days. Especially children the niece nephew which they were enjoy during these moment not only to eat caramel at the bottom of the pan. The children can also eat burned coconut, burned sugarcane. Stirring caramel used only palm sugar or sugar in the can, coconut and glutunious rice. Before string on day the neighbour choice the ripe coconut about 10-15 to press the coconut cream in different volume and depend its skilled of stirring whether the glutunious consist with of how many coconut were to used and how much the volume of sugar to be used. The first step were to soak the glutunious rice on the water to put on the stone pot. It should assured to use a strong person to help grinding the glutunious rice, grinding started from afternoon and finished about 3-4 evening of the same day.

Then place with flour in the grinding machine and let the water out until only become the flour. The elder should wake up early in the moning about three in the morning on the next day to help making the desserts, the lightning from the lamp and torch whill be lighted to allow the children see or heard the sound of elder’s talking and will also participated the gathering. Some will come to volunteer, helping to press the coconut in great number. Then press to have the cream and put jasmine flower on the water and strain, and separated the concentrated cream and diluted coconut cream. Put the concentrated coconut cream on the big pan, stir with paddle until it will separted each other then take out to put on the container.

The next step were to put the prepared flour on the basin add the diluted coconut cream add with palm sugar then mix together then put on the pan with lotus leaves were the iron pan of big size placed on the oven. Then put on the ground, then started to stir the caramel since nine o’clock . The first time flour still in fluid and it were easy to stir. This time children were happy and tried to ask the elder to help the punching. But at the same time also dig the pan to avoid not the flour stick on the bottom of the pan and make the flour sticky. Children should be careful not to separate and not foamy otherwise it will break out because when skin become foamy and break it hurt the skin. At this time the elder mostly do their self, some will set the fire strongly and some will make it steady. Until the colour of the flour change its colour to light brown then gradually dark brown. At this time the flour and sugar become sticky in first stage. Then stir more strongly and about 6 evening of that day the caramel become black and sticky that almost could not stir and need the second paddle to assist in stirring. Otherwise the pan will burn. If we the pan almost bur then gradually add concentrated coconut cream immediately. Gently pour it and about afternoon started to getting dark the caramel stir become enough sticky. Gradually lesser the fire to avoid the bottom of pan burn then use the second paddle spoon the caramel and put on flat basket covered with betel husk that makes the caramel aromatic smell than banana leaves as the last step of making caramel and keep for the next day. Most children could not help each other they gradually come to grate the caramel that stick on the pan to eat deliciously. Some ate young coconut, sugar and place on the fire to make it aromatic smells. At present the tradition in making new year desserts become caramel, glutinous rice sweetmeat with coconut milk and palm sugar, glutinous rice sweetmeat which is not famous at these day. Because most people will have to buy other present to other people on New Year’s day.

However these three desserts will never gone forever from Thai society becase everynowaday still seen caramel wrap in small black paper and seem delectable sold with glutinous rice sweetmeat, glutinous rice sweetmeat with coconut milk and palm sugar on Thai shop in general. Moreover these desserts is not only for specific at new year’s day of Thai only.

Sart Thai Festival
Sart Thai festival is a merit offering for the dead one. In the central region houses are getting together from the villages for the procession of Sart in merit making to pay for the Buddhist monk consist with beautiful half ripe banana. In the South the Sart festival or so far called in general as Sart Festival for Month 10, a big traditional festival for the year prepared by the provinces. Especially in Nakorn Srithammart it is highly prepared. The desserts for Sart festival for month 10 of the Southern are in various kinds such as khanom La, khanom Ba, khanom Dechum, khanom Pong, khanom kai pla, khanomko, khanom daeng etc.

Out of the Buddhist Lent or offering food to Buddhist priest (Tak Bart Tevo)

Khao Tom Mad or Khao Tom Phad is the best dessert offer during the Buddhist lent or offering food to Buddhist priest for the central. It will wrap and tight with banana leaves and banana string fiber. For the South it is wrapping in shape of cone using palm string fiber but not tighten. Some locality is in lump shape with baitoey or sugarcane leaves with long tail so far called as "khao tom lukyon," Preparing khao tom mad to offer for the Buddhist priest had become the tradition with aims as the food for Buddhist monk to travel to spread the religious teaching and that is the beginning then.

Auspicious Occasion

For various auspicious occasion of Thai like wedding, length of life merit making, entering new house, entering to monkhood etc. Thai dessert has the part for sweets prepared to offer to the Buddhist monk and sweet food to offer for the guest or visitors. Because of the belief that continuously inherits Thai dessert is a special food for the person of good deeds. Sweet will help enjoyment, friendship and love. Therefore it may refer for that society that Thai dessert is meaningful about good deeds, love, happiness and cooperation

Offering Food to the Monk

The famous Thai dessert offer to the monk during auspicious occasion such as thong yip (sweet egg petals), thong yod (sweet egg drops), foi thong (sweet egg shred), thong ek. The desserts having auspicious name are khanom tuay fo, khanom chan etc. and dessert specially use for the procession of entering to buddhis monk, wedding ceremony are khanom kong, khanom samklua, khanom prapai, khanon prongsaem, khanom chamod etc. The dessert use for the thirteen chapters of the Maha Chat are khanom na nual, khanom chan, khanom pakbua, khanomping, khanom thong muan etc.

Wedding Ceremony

Dessert use for different auspicious occasion has auspicious name with good meaning such as * khanom kong or khanom kong kiwian the meaning is the kong kiwian that will rotates in the front like Buddha's teaching with its meaning that define about the wedding is that the two couples love each other forever. * Khanom sam klua a sweets that showing cooperation and no way to leave each other use as sweet for auspicious wedding day. The shape of khanom sam klua is in three rounds, greeting can see after telling the result, if the result that the three rounds still connected to each other it means the couples love each other happily. If the result that two rounds connected it shows to have children or nothing, however if the three rounds are not connected to each other. It shows that the life of the couples are not lasting or no happiness, one thing if the result that the khanom sam klua will risely flow it means that the two are mean to each other. But if after the result is the other side is not swollen it means that it is not

The reason why Thai people at the ancient times use the above desserts during auspicious occasion. Because the names are meaningful with the word "thong (gold). Moreover Thai people considered that gold is precious, which in having the word "thong (gold) use for auspicious occasion to have good merit, have money and gold, rank, happiness, famous name.

Different Parties

……………….apart from making merit and auspicious occasion, during the ancient times, the new party for wealthy people and good merit government official, are invited by the community to eat the dessert. The dessert use to offer during this event is khanom si tuay namely: khanom khai kop or menglak seed, khanom nok ploi or lodchong, khanom bangloi or khao mao and khanom idu or black glutinous rice. The four desserts will be eaten with coconut milk so far called that the one deliciously eaten and comfortable for stomach, the one prepare will have the merit and the one who spend money to invited people are also happy for making merit of Thai dessert like the dessert for rising the rank.

Thai Dessert in Thai style Source

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Thai Dessert in Thai style Source: Office of the National Culture Commission
Thai dessert has binding for the life of Thai people many years ago and became important ever since until at present. Thai dessert cannot be neglected for daily life of Thai people. Although selling Thai desserts are not widely seen like before still Thai knows to make their own sweets. Apart from the life of Thailand people are mostly agriculturist, sub-urban people having varieties of natural product such as coconut, palm planted in their own land, varieties of fruits such as banana, sugarcane, mango including rice, sticky rice, shredded rice grain, popped rice, etc. It wanted to use coconut milk then get their own coconut, grind to get milk out of it, if wanted to have flour, rice is also a flour because they plant their own rice, grind by mill or stone mill can seen at any houses. By grinding the rice then later they will have the flour making a delicious sweet in the family. If they make a lot they will distribute it to neighbors to taste delectably.
"Thai desserts never died" or as long Thai culture still existed Thai desserts still existed like ever before.
Khanom krok and banana sweet seems to be the best. Because of its ingredients which easy to find, and making is easy. The oven for khanom krok is sold since Ayudya period. For banana and coconut are widely eaten if not otherwise will throw the left over and it's wasting…
Khanom num is another dessert, people like to eat, easy to do and the most famous to be eaten are kaeng buad such as pakthong buad (squash buad) kluay buatchi next with khanom num. It also preserve as food longer like khanom syrup and khanom kuan including the preserve fruits and fruits preserve in sugar.

There are varieties of deserts has been sold when later the market had been established. The method in selling is to sell in one place, basket, carry wide basket and carry on the shoulder like hawker. Thai people have more lot of chooses because there are varieties of desserts to eat. The sellers have to develop their skill in making tasty desserts better to make their dessert wanted by customers.

There are several famous markets for Thai desserts; from the beginning only few owners in its place make Thai dessert. But the numbers are increasing until the place becomes the famous place for Thai dessert. The famous place for Thai desserts is Muang Petchburi, Thai dessert Village is Nonthaburi Province, Nongmun market of Cholburi Province etc. Apart from this you can see Thai dessert market throughout the country, you can see that Thai desserts are widely sold throughout and sell by hawker.

Most of Thai people consume dessert are from the rural area. But don't say that people in the city will not eat. Because apart from bread such as doughnut, cake, cookie, pudding, waffles, custard, pie etc. Thai desserts like Thong Yib, Thong Yod, Foi Thong, Khanom Chan, Khanom Buang, Khanom Numdokmai, Thong Muan are also famous eaten by several people

.………………in brief Thai dessert has influence against the tradition of eating for Thai people just like no one could resist. However although later the dessert from Western country have influence with Thai people. That some of Thai desserts are vanished from being famous in Thai society. But still numbers of Thai desserts with colorful, tasty, aromatic in Thai culture. Therefore it is not strange or eating as so called internationally "Thai desserts never died" or as long Thai culture still existed Thai desserts still existed like ever before.

Legendary Thai Desserts

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Legendary Thai Desserts : Source: Office of the National Culture Commission ......... “Kaonom” Chaonom” “Khaonom” derived from the word “ Kanom” (Dessert) called by several people since the beginning, referred by several home economics that these word come from the word “Kaonom.” Because the main important ingredients of desserts are rice and milk. It should never be the origin since milk is not important for Thai desserts. Thai desserts used coconut or coconut milk. Her Royal Highness Jarut Porn Patiyan had presumed that “Nom” had differing with the word “Kaonom.” Because “Nom” means sweet but the real definition of “Nom” did not appeared in Thai dictionary, only stating that in the North “Kanom” means sweets. However the definition of the word “Nom” being the golden word aside from the hearsay. In the dictionary another very interesting words is “Num” may derived from Khmer word as “Nom” means food made from flour. When come for consideration it was found that kanom is made from flour with combination of sugar and coconut milk.

May derived the word “Kanom” deferring from the word “nom” of Khmer language. Although desssert originated from any language or what defined as sweets had the important role in Thai society. Thais are proud to have these Thai desserts. Which Thai itself known that the country like to consume sweets. The oldest way expressing the relationship between Thai desserts and Thai inherited the literature of Sukhothai about His Majesty Prajadhipok referring the boiled glutinous rice as another Thai dessert. Thai desserts started to spread during ancient Ayutthaya period appeared in several letter.Another letters stated “Yan Pao Kanom” or Talad Kanom, some referring “Ban Moh” of carving pot that included the pot, kanom buang, oven and shape of kanom krok. Referring that Kanom Krok and kanom buang had widely spread out by carving pot and frying pan to be sold. Some stating about kanom chamod, kanom kong kawian or kanom kong, kanom krok, kanom buan, kanom lodchong. Until the period of His Majesty the King Narai Maharat renowned as the golden era of Thai desserts as seen in the letter from ancient foreigner, which recorded the making of dessert at that time of His Majesty Phra Narai the King period was very prosperous. Especially when the Portuquese like Thanying Visayin or sacred like “Tao Thong and House, the one who originated the dessets of sweets in the palace. Had teaches the servant in the palace to make various kind of sweets. Especially to introduce the used of eggs yolk and egg white as main ingredients that Portuguese. The sweets made by Tao Thong and Ma which is famous until these day are: Thong yod or gold drop, Foi thong or gold fibre, Moh Kaeng and Kanom Thong Prong, kanom tongplu, kanom sampan, kanom kai dao etc.

That lasted to Ratanagosin era. The letter was the remembrance of Krum, the Luang Narintorn Tawee, His Majesty of the Great, His Majesty Yodfa Chulalolok referring that during the celebration of Emerald Buddha and commemoration of Phra Sri Rataasasdaram temple. The offering for 2000 monks consist with sai kai, kanom foi, khaoniao kaew, kanom ping, kluay chab, latiang, rum, custard, foi thong or gold fibre and kanom talai. In the picture of hall of klong boat row are the Kao wan, the literary work of His Majesty Loetla Nabhalai had visited the Thai dessert in various kind such as glutunious custard, kanom lum jiak, Thong yip or pinched gold, Thong yod or gold drop, kanom ping, kanom rangrai, kanom chom muang, kanom Bua Loi or balls in coconut cream etc. During the dynasty of King Chulalongkorn the spreading of printing of recipe and making Thai desserts is one of the receipt of Thai. Therefore it was known that Thai dessert and Thai tradition stated to be recorded in written significantly. Mae Krua Hua Pak was the first Thai recipe book during Rama V Dynasty, composed by Than Puying Plian Pasakornwong. This first Thai recipe book contained the food offering for monk consist with thong yib or Foi thong or, kanom mookaeng, kanom hantrad, kanom tuay poh, glutinious crystal or kawniao kaew, kanom lum kluen, maprang jelly fruit etc. Elaborating that Thai used these meaningful desserts offering for merits making. That can seen at present since Ayuthaya period.

Green Papaya Salad

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Green Papaya Salad
(Som Tam Thai)

Originally an lsan dish from the northeast, this healthy mixture of raw vegetables is now prepared by roadside vendors all over the county. Som Tam captures the essentail flavors of Thailand: chili hot, redolent with garlic and fish sauce, and sour with lime juice. The basic ingredient, unripe papaya, contrasts in texture with crunchy raw beans and peanuts. If unripe papaya is not available, very thinly sliced cabbage may be substututed.
Ingregients (serves 4)
2-5 bird's-eye chilies
2 tablespoons unsalted roasted peanuts or cashew nuts
1 tablespoon dried shrimp or prawns, soaked in warm water for 5 minutes and drained
5 cloves garlic
10 oz (300 g) unripe green papaya, peeled and shredded using a sharp knife or vegetable grater
1/2 cup (50 g) long beans or gree beans, cut in 1/2-in (1 cm) pieces
6 ripe cherry tomatoes, quartered, or 1 large tomato, in wedges
3 tablespoons lime juice
1 tablespoon chopped palm sugar or dark brown sugar
1 tablespoon fish sauce
2 cups raw vegetables (cabbage, water spinach, broccoli, as paragus)
3 spings Thai basil (horapa)

1 Take the chilies, peanuts, dried shrimp and garlic and pound roughly in a mortar and pestle or process very briefly in a blender. The mixture should be coarse, not smooth.
2 Cmobine mixture in a bowl with the shredded papaya, bean and tomato. Mix well and add the lime juice, palm sugar and fish sauce.
3 Serve accompanied by other row vegetables (cabbage, water spinach, broccoli or asparagus) and and sprigs of Thai basil. For a complete meal, add glutinous rice and Barbecued Chicken
Tips -- Prepare the salad immediately before serving, otherwise the papaya will lose it firm texture.

Stir-fried Assparagus with Shrimp

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Stir-fried Assparagus with Shrimp
(Pad Nor Mai Farang)

Ingregients (serves 6)
2 tablespoons oil
3 cloves garlic, peeled and minced
10 oz (300 g) young asparagus, cut into bite-sized lengths
5 oz (150 g) shrimp, peeled and deveined, tails intact
1 teaspoon soy sauce
2 teaspoons oyster sauce
1 teaspoon fish sauce
1/4 teaspoon sugar
1/2 cup Thai Chicken Stock
1 teaspoon cornstarch mixed in
2 tablespoons water
1/4 teaspoon ground white pepper

1 Heat a wok until very hot then add the oil. When oil is hot, add garlic and stir-fry until fragent, about 1 minute. Add asparagus and shrimp and stir-fry until asparagus is hust tender and shrimp turn pink, 3-4 minutes.
2 Add soy sauce, oyster sauce, fish sauce and sugar. Stir-fry then add Thai Chicken Stock and corn starch mixture and simmer for 1 minute.
3 Transfer to a plate

Tips -- It is important to measure out all the sauces before cooking, as this dish cooks very fast.

Stir-fried Mixed Vegetables

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Stir-fried Mixed Vegetables
(Pad Pak Ruam Mit )

This method of cooking vegetabels can be used for individual vegetables, such as Chinese broccoli, or almost any combination of vegetables depending on availability and preferece.
Ingregients (serves 6-8)
8 oz (225 g) Chinese broccoli (kailan) or broccoli stems
3-4 cabbage leavers, sliced
1/2 cup (100 g) sliced carrots
1/2 cup (100 g) cauliflower florets
1/2 cup (50 g) snow peas
1/2 cup (50 g) baby sweet corn
2 tablespoons oil
3 tablespoons minced garlic
5 fresh shiitake or Chinese mushroom, stems removed and sliced
1/2 cup (125 ml) Thai Chicken Stock or water
3 tablespoons oyster sauce
1/2 tablespoon soy sauce
1/2 teaspoon black soy sauce
1 tablespoon fish sauceDash of rice wine, sherry or sake
1/2 teaspoon ground white pepper
1/2 teaspoon sugar

1 Heat a wok until lightly smoking and add the oil. When hot, add the garlic and stir well for 1 minute, or until fragrant. Add mushrooms and stir-fry for 1 minute.
2 Add the vegetables and chicken stock or water to the wok and stir-fry for about 8-10 until just cooked; the vegetables should still be slightly crisp. Add the oyster, soy and fish sauces and wine, then sprinkle with pepper and sugar. Mix well and cook for 1 minute.
3 Serve accompanied by rice.
Tips -- Use maximum heat to stir fry the vegetables to ensure the right texture and flavor. If using dried Chinese mushrooms, soak in warm water for 15 minutes before slicing.

Chicken Salad with Vegetables

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Chicken Salad with Vegetables
(Lab Gai)

The dish makes a wonderfully healthy dish because it is made without oil and eaten with raw vegetables and herbs (and rice). It may by served with a chili sauce like Nam Jim
Ingregients (serves 4-6)
10 oz (300 g) ground chicken
3 cloves garlic, finely chopped
1/4 cup (60 ml) fresh lime or lemon juice
11/2 tablespoons fish sauce
2 tablespoons uncooked long grain or jusmine rice
2-3 bird's-eye chilies, minced
1 medium onion, thinly sliced
2 sprigs coriander leaves (cilantro), finely chopped
1 cup (20 g) fresh mint leavesAn assortment of letuce leaves, cabbage, fresh Thai basil (horapa), cucumber and long beans or green beans

1 Dry roast the rice grains in a wok or pan over medium heat until lightly browned. Remove from the pan and grind the roasted rice lightly in a mortar and pestle or blender. Set aside
2 Cook the meat and garlic without oil in a non-stick wok or frying pan over medium heat until the meat turns white. Remove from the heat to cool.
3 Add the lime juice, fish sauce and salt, stirring to mix well. Stir in the rice powder, minced chilies, onion, scallion, cilantro and mint leaves.4 Arrange the chicken mixture on a serving platter and surround the chicken with raw vegetables and herbs, as desired.

Steamed Pumpkin Custard

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Steamed Pumpkin Custard
(Sangkaya Fak Thong)

A visually intriguing dessert where a rich coconut-milk custard is steamed inside a small pumpkin or acorn squashes.
Ingregients (serves 4)
5 eggs (2 of them duck eggs if possible)
1 cup (250 ml) coconut cream
1 cup (150 g) chopped palm sugar or dark brown sugar
1 small pumpkin, about 8 in (20 cm) diameter, or 2 acorn squashes

1 Beat the eggs with coconut cream and sugar until the mixture is frothy.
2 Cut the top off the pumpkin or acorn squashes and carefull scoop out the seeds and any fibers. Pour in the coconut cream mixture, cover with the top of the pumpkin or squashes and place in a steamer. Cover the steamer and place over boiling water.
3 Cook over medium heat for about 30 minutes or until the mixture has set. Leave to cool (preferable refrigerate) and cut in thick slices to serve

Tips -- Duck eggs add richness and a firmer texture to the custard. Tf using palm sugar, strain the custard through a sieve before pouring into the pumpkin to remove any impurities
Preparation time: 10 mins

Deep-fried Bananas with Coconut

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Deep-fried Bananas with Coconut
(Khao Mao Tod)

These bananas are rolled in mixture of grate coconut and palm sugar before being dipped in batter and deep-fried.
Ingregients (serves 6)
1 cup freshly grated coconut
3/4 cup (110 g) chopped palm sugar
14 small ripe finger bananas or 5-6 large ripe bananas, sliced into 2-3 sections
5 cups (11/4 liters) oil deep-frying

2 cups (300 g) glutinous rice flour
1 cup (250 ml) thin coconut milk
1/2 cup (125 ml) water
1 egg, lightly beaten
1 tablespoon sesame seeds (optional)

1 Combine the coconut and palm sugar and cook for 15 minutes in nonstick pan over low heat, stirring frequently. Set aside. Mix the Batter ingredients and let it stand for 3 hours.
2 Just before serving, heat oil in deep saucepan, roll each banana in the coconut golden brown. Serve hot.

Tips -- If you cannot obtain glutinous rice flour, substitute with glutinous rice paste that you make directly from glutinous rice grains. To make the paste, soak 2 cups of glutinous rice in water for 5 hour. Drain and transfer the rice to a blender. Add 1 cup of water and grind till a thick liquid forms. Pour the mixture into a fine muslin cloth and strain until the water is gone. Add the remaining rice flour paste to the other Batter ingredients, omitting the water. Mix and set aside to stand for 3 hours.

Glutinous Rice Beads in Coconut Milk

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Glutinous Rice Beads in Coconut Milk
(Bua Loi)

Ingregients (serves 4-6)
11/2 cup (370 g) glutinous rice flour
3/4 cup (180 ml) waterFew drops food coloring (option)
2 cups (500 ml) thick coconut milk
1 cup (200 g) sugar1 teaspoon salt

1 Mix the glutinous rice flour with the water to make a striff paste. Knead well. If using coloring, devide the dough into two batches, add a few drops of coloring to each batch and mix well. Roll dough into long noodle-like strips. Pinch off bits from the strips and from into pea-sized balls. Bring a large pot of water to a boil, toss in the balls and remove when they float to the surface. Drain.
2 Bring half the coconut milk and sugar to a boil over low heat, stirring contantly to prevent it from separating, then add the cooked rice flour beads. When the mixture return to boil, remove from the heat and stir in the remaining coconut milk. Serve in small bowls.
If you cannot obtain glutinous rice flour, you can make the paste directly from glutinous rice. To make the paste, soak 11/2 cups glutinous rice in water for 5 hours. Drain and transfer the rice to a blender. Add 3/4 cup water and grind till a thick liquid mixture forms. Pour the mixture into a fine muslin cloth and drain until the water is gone. Knead the remaining paste to form a dough, adding small amounts of water if needed. You may add canned sweet corn kernels and cooked, colored diced water chestnut (prepared as for Red Rubied, see above) to this dish for a mor varied and colorful dessert